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Citation Styles for the References Section

 

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BODY STYLES

REFERENCE STYLES

References in a paper must be in Harvard style using author and date; all of them must be placed at the end of the main body of the text in alphabetical order by author. The reference styles in the text are as follows.

CITING IN THE TEXT

References should be cited in the text either in brackets, e.g., "Earlier studies (Pearce, 1989) showed..." or using the name as part of a sentence, e.g., "Pearce (1989) states..."

Personal communications - emails, conversations, letters - should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text, e.g., (interview with the James Green, University of Southern California, 12 November 2008).

STYLE EXAMPLES

For journal:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of article', Journal Name, volume, number, pages.

Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P. & Warshaw, P.R. (1989) 'User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models', Management Science, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 982-1003.

Knights, D. & McCabe, D. (1996) ' "A bridge too far?": consistent quality initiatives in financial services', The TQM Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 51-55.

Aiken, K.D., Liu, B.S., Mackoy, R.D. & Osland, G.E. (2004) 'Building internet trust: signaling through trustmarks', International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 251-267.

Tsang, E.W.K. (1995) 'The implementation of technology transfer in Sino-foreign joint ventures', International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 10, Nos. 7/8, pp. 757-66.

 

For book:   Surname, Initials (year) Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Rosenberg, N. (1976) Perspectives of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Li, E.Y. & Du, T.C. (forthcoming) Advances in Electronic Business, Volume 1 (Collaborative Commerce), Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, PA.

 

For translated book:   Surname, Initials (year) Title of Book, Translator Surname, Initials (Tran.), Publisher, Place of publication. (Original work published in year.)

Laplace, P.-S. (1951) A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, Truscott, F.W. & Emory, F.L. (Trans.), Dover, New York, NY. (Original work published in 1814.)

 

For book chapter:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Chapter title', in Editor Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

Kogut, B. (1991) 'Designing global strategies: comparative and competitive value-added chains', in Wortzel, H.V. & Wortzel, L.H. (Eds.), Strategic Management of Multinational Enterprise: The Essentials, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp. 100-115.

Pinchot, G.& Pinchot, E. (1996) 'This rise and fall of bureaucracy', in Pinchot, G. & Pinchot, E. (Eds.), The End of Bureaucracy and the Rise of Intelligent Organizations, San Francisco, CA: Berret-Koehler Publishers, Inc., pp. 200-215. (Reprinted in Myers, P.S. (Ed.), Knowledge Management and Organizational Design, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA, 1996, pp. 39-53.)

 

For book review:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of article', Journal Name, volume, number, pages, Review of the book by Surname, Initials (year) Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Schatz, B. R. (2000) 'Learning by text or context?', Science, Vol. 290, p. 1304, Review of the book by Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (2000) The Social Life of Information, Harvard Business Press, Cambridge, MA.

 

For publication without author:   Substitute author with Publisher Name.

Hong Kong Monetary Authority (1999) Annual Reports, Hong Kong Monetary Authority, Hong Kong, China.

Merriam-Webster (1993) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.), Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA.

The Washington Post (1993) 'New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure', The Washington Post, July 15, p. A12.

 

For e-mail/personal communication:   Use note/endnote to indicate the author and date.

Chafez, L. A. (personal communication, March 28, 1997).

 

For internet homepage:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of article', Website Name, available at URL full path (accessed date).

Balseiro, A., Selas, I. & Kotzrincker, J. (2000) 'Banca online', El Estado de la Cuestión, available at http://www.baquia.com/com/20001016/art00010.html (accessed 25 November 2011).

O'ullivan, O. (2000) 'Net banks: more dream than reality', US Banker, available at http://www.us-banker.com (accessed 18 February 2011).

 

For internet homepage without author:   Substitute author with Website Name.

Pew Internet (2001) 'Hispanics and the internet', Pew Internet and America Life Project, available at http://www.pewinternet.org (accessed 18 September 2011).

 

For proceedings:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of paper', Title of proceedings, Place and date(s) held, [if publisher available] Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

Zhang, Q. & Cao, M. (2001) 'Human-machine Web interface design for electronic commerce: a review of design perspectives, objectives, dimensions, and techniques', Proceedings of the First International Conference on Electronic Business (ICEB 2001), Hong Kong, China, December 19-21, pp. 404-405.

 

For unpublished proceedings:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of paper', paper presented at Name of Conference, Place and date(s) held, [if freely available on the internet] available at: URL full path (accessed date).

Geringer, J.M., Tallman, S.B., & Li, E.Y. (1994) 'Using resource-based theory to assess internationalization theories', paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference, Dallas, TX, August 16.

 

For working paper:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of paper', Working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization.

Du, T.C., Li, E.Y., & Chang, J. (2002) 'Implementing association rule techniques in data allocation scheme of distributed databases', Working paper, Faculty of Business Administration, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, January.

 

For unpublished thesis/dissertation:   Surname, Initials (year) 'Title of thesis/dissertation', Unpublished degree thesis/dissertation, Name of institution, Place of institution.

Pearson, S.W. (1977) 'Measurement of computer user satisfaction', Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.